Payrolls Top Expectations
December 2, 2022
nonfarm payroll employment increased by 263,000 in November, and the
unemployment rate was unchanged at 3.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics reported today.
The payrolls number was more than the 200,000 estimate, while the
unemployment rate was in line.
Average hourly earnings were up
0.6% for the month, double the estimate, and 5.1% annually versus
the 4.6% expectation.
Notable job gains occurred in leisure and hospitality, health care,
and government. Employment declined in retail trade and in
transportation and warehousing.
This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The
household survey measures labor force status, including
unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The establishment
survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology
used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note.
Household Survey Data
The unemployment rate was unchanged at 3.7 percent in November and
has been in a narrow range of 3.5 percent to 3.7 percent since
March. The number of unemployed persons was essentially unchanged at
6.0 million in November.
Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men
(3.4 percent), adult women (3.3 percent), teenagers (11.3 percent),
Whites (3.2 percent), Blacks (5.7 percent), Asians (2.7 percent),
and Hispanics (3.9 percent) showed little or no change over the
Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers rose by
127,000 to 1.4 million in November. The number of persons on
temporary layoff changed little at 803,000.
The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or
more) was little changed at 1.2 million in November. The long-term
unemployed accounted for 20.6 percent of all unemployed persons.
Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.1 percent, and the
employment-population ratio, at 59.9 percent, were little changed in
November and have shown little net change since early this year.
These measures are each 1.3 percentage points below their values in
February 2020, prior to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons was
about unchanged at 3.7 million in November. These individuals, who
would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time
because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find
The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a
job was little changed at 5.6 million in November and remains above
its February 2020 level of 5.0 million. These individuals were not
counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for
work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to
take a job.
Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of
persons marginally attached to the labor force held at 1.5 million
in November. These individuals wanted and were available for work
and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not
looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of
discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who
believed that no jobs were available for them, was 405,000 in
November, little changed from the previous month.
Establishment Survey Data
Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 263,000 in November,
roughly in line with average growth over the prior 3 months
(+282,000). Monthly job growth has averaged 392,000 thus far in
2022, compared with 562,000 per month in 2021. In November, notable
job gains occurred in leisure and hospitality, health care, and
government. Employment declined in retail trade and in
transportation and warehousing.
Leisure and hospitality added 88,000 jobs in November, including a
gain of 62,000 in food services and drinking places. Leisure and
hospitality has added an average of 82,000 jobs per month thus far
this year, less than half the average gain of 196,000 jobs per month
in 2021. Employment in leisure and hospitality is below its
pre-pandemic February 2020 level by 980,000, or 5.8 percent.
In November, employment in health care rose by 45,000, with gains in
ambulatory health care services (+23,000), hospitals (+11,000), and
nursing and residential care facilities (+10,000). So far in 2022,
health care employment has increased by an average of 47,000
per month, well above the 2021 average monthly gain of 9,000.
Government added 42,000 jobs in November, mostly in local government
(+32,000). Government employment has increased by an average of
25,000 per month thus far this year, compared with 38,000 per month
in 2021. Since February 2020, government employment is down by
461,000, or 2.0 percent.
In November, employment in the other services industry rose by
24,000, as personal and laundry services added 11,000 jobs over the
month. Other services employment has increased by an average of
15,000 per month thus far this year, compared with 24,000 per month
in 2021. Employment in other services is below its February 2020
level by 186,000, or 3.1 percent.
Employment in social assistance increased by 23,000 in November and
has returned to its February 2020 level. Within social assistance,
employment in individual and family services increased by 17,000 in
November. Job growth in social assistance has averaged 18,000 per
month thus far in 2022, compared with an average of 13,000 per month
Construction employment continued to trend up in November (+20,000),
with nonresidential building adding 8,000 jobs. Construction has
added an average of 19,000 jobs per month thus far this year, little
different from the 2021 average of 16,000 per month.
Employment in information rose by 19,000 in November. Employment in
the industry has increased by an average of 14,000 per month thus
far this year, in line with the average of 16,000 per month in 2021.
Manufacturing employment continued to trend up in November
(+14,000). Job growth has averaged 34,000 per month thus far this
year, little different from the 2021 average of 30,000 per month.
In November, employment in financial activities continued its upward
trend (+14,000). Job gains in real estate and rental and leasing
(+13,000) and in securities, commodity contracts, and investments
(+6,000) were partially offset by a decline in credit intermediation
and related activities (-9,000). Employment in financial activities
has increased by an average of 12,000 per month thus far this year,
the same as in 2021.
Employment in retail trade declined by 30,000 in November. Job
losses in general merchandise stores (-32,000), electronics and
appliance stores (-4,000), and furniture and home furnishings stores
(-3,000) were partially offset by a job gain in motor vehicle and
parts dealers (+10,000). Retail trade employment has fallen by
62,000 since August.
Employment in transportation and warehousing declined by 15,000 in
November and has decreased by 38,000 since July. In November, job
losses in warehousing and storage (-13,000) and in couriers and
messengers (-12,000) were partially offset by a job gain in air
Employment in professional and business services changed little in
November (+6,000). Within the industry, professional and technical
services added 28,000 jobs, while business support services lost
11,000 jobs. Monthly job growth in professional and business
services has averaged 58,000 thus far in 2022, down from 94,000 per
month in 2021.
Employment showed little change over the month in mining and
November, average hourly earnings for all employees on private
nonfarm payrolls rose by 18 cents, or 0.6 percent, to $32.82. Over
the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 5.1
percent. In November, average hourly earnings of private-sector
production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 19 cents, or 0.7
percent, to $28.10.
In November, the average workweek for all employees on private
nonfarm payrolls declined by 0.1 hour to 34.4 hours. In
manufacturing, the average workweek for all employees decreased by
0.2 hour to 40.2 hours, and overtime declined by 0.1 hour to 3.1
hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory
employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by 0.1 hour to 33.9
The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for September was
revised down by 46,000, from +315,000 to +269,000, and the change
for October was revised up by 23,000, from +261,000 to +284,000.
With these revisions, employment gains in September and October
combined were 23,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly
revisions result from additional reports received from businesses
and government agencies since the last
published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)